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“Art precedes science” - Panamarenko

With his theory of closed systems, as from 1968 Panamarenko tried to prove the possibility of launching a mass out into space, with the energy needed for its forward movement contained in a closed system. He clarified his theory by means of a coin that he flipped away with his thumb. Panamarenko did a drawing of the trajectory of the coin, which resulted in a geometrical figure with various speeds. By replacing the coin by an electron whose mass, circumference and speed are known, he subsequently arrives at a standard formula to calculate the revolution and changes of speed of the planets and stars. However, the drawings and calculations encountered considerable opposition from established scientists. By involving the fourth dimension in his theory, Panamarenko gained a new galactic insight, which in the early 1990s resulted in a theory of space which he called his Toymodel of Space. He explained the theory in a short film in 1993, in which he outlines his view of how the universe works.

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